The article deals with the problem of increasing the regions’ role in international and foreign economic cooperation of the Soviet Union in 1955–65. The aim of the research is to study the dynamics of the visits of foreign countries’ leaders to Sverdlovsk Oblast, which was traditionally considered as “closed.” Based on the results of the study, the stages of diplomatic activity in the region are identified.
It was found that 1955–59 and 1963–65, when 18 visits of leaders of capitalist, socialist and developing countries to Sverdlovsk Oblast were organized and held, were the most eventful periods in this regard. The programs of the visits to the territory of the oblast were analyzed. Based on the results of the analysis, the average length of stay in Sverdlovsk Oblast, the preferred period for a trip to the Middle Urals, and general principles and features of organizing the reception of eminent guests in Sverdlovsk Oblast were determined. It was revealed that the Sverdlovsk Oblast Committee of the CPSU approved a list of 64 institutions which were recommended for foreign delegations to visit. The article highlights the key objects and facilities that were shown to foreign guests. It was found that the main point of the program of almost all delegations was a visit to Uralmash. Foreign guests also visited other industrial enterprises, including those which were located within the 40–50 km radius of the administrative center of the region, the city of Sverdlovsk. The article reveals the importance of the role assigned to the cultural program (visiting the Geological Museum and theaters).
Sojourn in Sverdlovsk Oblast allowed eminent guests to see the potential of one of the country’s industrial centers in person and facilitated placing orders in the oblast for the needs of the economy of foreign countries. In addition, an ideological task was solved: the peaceful stance of the Soviet Union which possessed powerful defense potential was demonstrated to the guests.
The author concludes that the involvement of the USSR’s regions in the processes of international cooperation was effective. At the same time, the adjustment of the country’s foreign policy in the mid-1960s was marked by a trend towards a decrease in the number of trips of foreign countries’ top officials to the regions of the USSR, including Sverdlovsk Oblast, within the framework of official and working visits.
Chernyavskii, A.V. “Reaktsiya sovetskikh grazhdan na pervyi vizit prezidenta SShA R. Niksona v Moskvu i podpisanie dogovora OSV 1” [Soviet citizens’ reaction to the US President Richard Nixon’s first visit to Moscow and signing SALT 1]. Vestnik MGOU. Seriya: Istoriya i politicheskie nauki, no. 3 (2014): 154–65. (In Russian)
Dutchak, G.O., and V.N. Ryzhikh. “Druzhestvennyi vizit prezidenta Frantsii de Gollya v Kiev: sila v gosudarstvennom protokole” [President of France Charles de Gaulle’s friendly visit to Kiev: strength is in government protocol]. Vestnik gosudarstvennogo i munitsipal'nogo upravleniya, no. 2–1 (2014): 45–51. (In Russian)
Filitov, A.M. “Moskovskii vizit Adenauera 1955 g.” [Adenauer’s Moscow visit in 1955]. Rossiya i sovremennyi mir, no. 2 (2006): 177–87. (In Russian)
Gugnyak, V.Ya. “Vneshnyaya torgovlya SSSR v 1950–1960-kh gg.” [Foreign trade of the USSR in the 1950s–1960s]. Vlast', no. 11 (2016): 187–90. (In Russian)
Khakhalkina, E.V. “Navstrechu drug drugu? Vizit g. Makmillana v SSSR v 1959 g.” [Towards each other? Harold Macmillan’s visit to the Soviet Union in 1959]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 25: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya i mirovaya politika, no. 1 (2016): 140–69. (In Russian)
Khromova, E.B. “Sharl' de Goll' v SSSR: k yubileyu vizita 1966 goda” [Charles de Gaulle in the USSR: the anniversary of the visit in 1966]. Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: Kul'tura. Istoriya. Filosofiya. Pravo, no. 3 (2016): 30–40. (In Russian)
Kirillov, A.D., and G.M. Kaeta. Kitai – Ural: iz proshlogo v budushchee [China – Ural: from the past to the future]. Yekaterinburg: Ural'skii rabochii, 2016. (In Russian)
Kozovoï, A. “La rencontre Brejnev–Nixon de 1972 et la culture de guerre froide soviétique.” Revue historique, vol. 4, no. 652 (2009): 897–914. Accessed January 30, 2020. https://www.cairn.info/revue–historique–2009–4–page–897.htm
Lipkin, M. “Vizit Sharlya de Gollya v Sovetskii Soyuz i voprosy vneshnepoliticheskoi strategii Moskvy v 1966–1969 gg.” [Charles de Gaulle’s visit to the Soviet Union and Moscow’s International policy strategy between 1966 and 1969]. Quaestio Rossica, vol. 4, no. 4 (2016): 261–74. https://doi.org/10.15826/qr.2016.4.204 (In Russian)
Lunev, S.I. “Sovetsko-indiiskie otnosheniya (1955–1971 gg.): rozhdenie druzhby” [Soviet–Indian relations (1955–1971): the birth of a friendship]. Vestnik MGIMO, no. 2 (53) (2017): 24–51. https://doi.org/10.24833/2071-8160-2017-2-53-24-51 (In Russian)
Nagieva, A.A., and F.Sh. Larina. “Mezhdunarodno-pravovye aspekty diplomaticheskogo protokola” [International legal aspects of the diplomatic protocol]. Moskovskii zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava, no. 1 (2018): 79–88. https://doi.org/10.24833/0869-0049-2018-1-79-88 (In Russian)
Novosel'tsev, B.S. “Sovetsko-yugoslavskie otnosheniya v kontse 1960-kh – nachale 1970–kh godov i vizit I. Broza Tito v Moskvu (5–10 iyunya 1972 g.)” [Soviet–Yugoslav relations in the late 1960s and early 1970s and Josip Broz Tito’s visit to Moscow (June 5–10, 1972)]. Slavyane i Rossiya, no. 1 (2018): 388–404. https://doi.org/10.31168/2618-8570.2018.21 (In Russian)
Panov, P.G. Sverdlovsk v nastoyashchem i budushchem [Sverdlovsk in the present and future]. Sverdlovsk: Sverdlovskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo, 1958. (In Russian)
Pelikán, J., et al. “The Yugoslav state visit to the Soviet Union, June 1956.” In Spoljna politika Jugoslavije 1950–1961, 93–117. Belgrade: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije, 2010. Accessed November 2, 2020. https://www.ceeol.com/search/chapter–detail?id=410762
Popov, A.D. Vsesoyuznaya zdravnitsa: istoriya turizma i kurortnogo dela Kryma v 1920– 1980-e gody [All–Union health resort: the history of tourism and balneology of Crimea in the 1920s–1980s]. Simferopol: Antikva, 2019. (In Russian)
Sharma, K. “Castromania in the USSR: Fidel Castro, Nikita Khrushchev, and the road to Soviet–American detente, 1963.” Research Works at the University of Washington. Faculty and Researcher Data and Papers. Accessed November 2, 2020. https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/36000
Sokolov, A.A. “Kho Shi Min: Poezdki v SSSR v 1950 i 1952 gg. ‘Memuarnaya’ istoriya” [Ho Chi Minh: trips to the USSR in 1950 and 1952. A ‘memoir’ history]. V'etnamskie issledovaniya, no. 1 (2011): 259–301. (In Russian)
Solntse, E.O., R.R. Khairutdinova, and F.G. Mukhametzyanova. “Vizit Richarda Niksona v Krym v 1974 godu i ego posledstviya” [Richard Nixon’s visit to the Crimea in 1974 and its implications]. Kazanskii vestnik molodykh uchenykh, vol. 3, no. 2 (2019): 201–9. (In Russian)
Yarkova, E.I. “‘Sverdlovsk vstrechal dorogikh gostei…’ Vizity glav inostrannykh gosudarstv v stolitsu Srednego Urala (1950-e – 1980-e gg.)” [‘Sverdlovsk met dear guests…’ Visits of foreign countries’ leaders to the capital of the Middle Urals (1950s – 1980s)]. Vesi, no. 6 [special issue] (2013): 85–89. (In Russian)
Zakharova, O.Yu. Kak v SSSR prinimali vysokikh gostei. Ofitsial'nye i neofitsial'nye vstrechi, peregovory, podarki, menyu, razvlecheniya, poezdki po strane. Glavy gosudarstv i pravitel'stv, partiinye i obshchestvennye deyateli, zarubezhnye diplomaty v gostyakh u Stalina, Khrushcheva, Brezhneva [The way eminent guests were welcomed in the USSR. Official and informal meetings, negotiations, gifts, menus, entertainment, trips around the country. Leaders of countries and governments, party and public figures, foreign diplomats visiting Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev]. Moscow: Tsentrpoligraf, 2018. (In Russian)
Žarković, P. “Yugoslavia and the USSR 1945–1980: The history of a Cold War relationship.” Academia. Accessed November 2, 2020. https://www.academia.edu/35461673/ Yugoslavia_and_the_USSR_1945_1980_The_History_of_a_Cold_War_Relationship
foreigners in the USSR, Sverdlovsk Oblast, foreign delegation, heads of foreign countries, program of a visit, regions’ international relations, development of foreign economic relations, foreign policy of the USSR
Beklenishcheva, M. “Sverdlovsk Oblast in the diplomatic history of the USSR: visits of top officials of foreign countries to the region (1955–1965).” Historia Provinciae – the Journal of Regional History, vol. 5, no. 2 (2021): 529–70, https://doi.org/10.23859/2587-8344-2021-5-2-6