Vologda reformatories for juvenile delinquents (1918 – the 1920s)

Vologda reformatories for juvenile delinquents (1918 – the 1920s)

Nadezhda A. Belova
Full text:
Based on the analysis of archival documents and scientific literature, the article discusses issues related to the formation and functioning of various types of reformatories for juvenile delinquents (school and shelter, probation and supervision station for morally defective children, reception center, children’s home, juvenile colony for difficult children, et al.) that operated in the territory of Vologda Governorate during the initial period of the Soviet era. The data on the location of these institutions, specific features of their management, and the number, composition and confinement conditions of the inmates were clarified. When characterizing the activities of these institutions, along with positive experience, the problems, difficulties and shortcomings in their work were considered and attention was paid to the measures taken to eliminate the latter. The author came to the conclusion that the history of the Vologda juvenile reformatories in 1918 – the 1920s was a reflection of the national policy of the Bolsheviks implemented at the regional level that was aimed at combating homelessness, neglect, and juvenile delinquency, at developing effective measures to eradicate and prevent these negative phenomena, and at searching for an optimal model of an institution for correcting difficult teenagers.
Nadezhda A. Belova
Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Philosophy and History
Vologda Institute of Law and Economics of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Vologda, Russia
Agrikova, E.I. “Pervichnye uchrezhdeniya sotsial'no-pravovoi okhrany nesovershennoletnikh” [Primary institutions of social and legal protection of minors]. In Detskaya besprizornost': (preduprezhdenie i bor'ba s nei): sbornik statei [Juvenile homelessness: (prevention and fight against it): a collection of articles]. Moscow: Krasnaya nov', 1923. (In Russian)
Ball, A.M. And now my soul is hardened: Abandoned children in Soviet Russia, 1918–1930. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Bender, E.A. Bor'ba s besprizornost'yu i beznadzornost'yu nesovershennoletnikh v RSFSR v 1920–1930-e gg. (na materialakh Leningrada i Leningradskoi oblasti [Fight against homelessness and neglect of minors in the RSFSR in the 1920s – 1930s (based on the materials from Leningrad and Leningrad Oblast)]. PhD thesis. Saint Petersburg State University, 2015. (In Russian)
Boguslavskii, M.S. Deti ulitsy [Children of the street]. Moscow; Leningrad: Gosizdat, 1927. (In Russian)
Dekrety Sovetskoi vlasti: sbornik [Decrees of the Soviet government]. 2 vols. Vol. 1, 25 oktyabrya 1917 g. – 16 marta 1918 g. [October 25, 1917 – March 16, 1918]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1957. (In Russian)
Detskaya besprizornost' i detskii dom: sbornik statei i materialov II Vseros. s"ezda SPON po voprosam detskoi besprizornosti, detskogo doma i pravovoi okhrany detei i podrostkov [Child homelessness and the children’s home: materials of the Second All-Russian Congress for Social and Legal Protection of Minors]. Moscow: Otdel sotsial'no-pravovoi okhrany nesovershennoletnikh, 1926. (In Russian)
Detskaya defektivnost', prestupnost' i besprizornost': po materialam I s"ezda deyatelei po bor'be s detskoi defektivnost'yu, prestupnost'yu i besprizornost'yu [Child defectiveness, crime, and homelessness: the materials of the First congress of the activists involved in the fight against child defectiveness, crime, and homelessness]. Moscow: Gosizdat, 1922. (In Russian)
Ged'ko, M.I. Gosudarstvennaya sotsial'naya politika v otnoshenii detei: opyt i uroki 1920-kh gg. (na materialakh Moskvy i Moskovskoi gubernii) [State social policy in relation to children: experience and lessons of the 1920s (based on the materials from Moscow and Moscow Governorate)]. PhD thesis. Moscow State Social University, 1998. (In Russian)
Gerasimova, G.G. Bor'ba Kommunisticheskoi partii i Sovetskogo pravitel'stva s detskoi besprizornost'yu v period vosstanovleniya narodnogo khozyaistva (1921–1925 gg.) (Na materialakh Moskovskoi i Leningradskoi gubernii) [The fight of the Communist Party and the Soviet government against juvenile homelessness during the restoration of the national economy (1921–1925) (Based on the materials from the Moscow and Leningrad governorates)]. PhD thesis. V.I. Lenin Moscow State Pedagogical Institute, 1971. (In Russian)
Gerbeev, Yu.V. Ispravitel'nye uchrezhdeniya dlya nesovershennoletnikh pravonarushitelei (istoriko-pedagogicheskoe issledovanie [Reformatories for juvenile offenders (historical and pedagogical research)]. PhD thesis. Herzen Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute, 1969. (In Russian)
Grishakov, N.P. Detskaya prestupnost' i bor'ba s neyu putem vospitaniya [Juvenile delinquency and the fight against it by means of education]. Orel: Gosizdat, 1923. (In Russian)
Kalinina, A.D. Desyat' let raboty po bor'be s detskoi besprizornost'yu [Ten years of work to combat juvenile homelessness]. Moscow; Leningrad: Moskovskii rabochii, 1928. (In Russian)
Kelly, C. Children’s world: growing up in Russia, 1890–1991. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2007.
Khmyrov, A.N. “Okhrana detstva i profilaktika besprizornosti v Petrograde v 1917–1920 gg” [Child protection and prevention of homelessness in Petrograd in 1917–1920]. PhD thesis. Herzen Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute, 1980. (In Russian)
Kolokol'nikova, Z.U., and N.V. Podlesnaya. “Uchrezhdeniya sotsial'nogo vospitaniya dlya moral'no-defektivnykh detei v Prieniseiskoi Sibiri v 20–30-e gody XX veka” [Institutions for social education of morally defective children in Yenisei Siberia in the 1920s–1930s]. Mezhdunarodnyi zhurnal prikladnykh i fundamental'nykh issledovanii, no. 1–1 (2015): 136–40. (In Russian)
Krivenko, T.D. Spetsial'nye vospitatel'nye uchrezhdeniya i ikh rol' v perevospitanii nesovershennoletnikh pravonarushitelei [Special educational institutions and their role in the re-education of juvenile offenders]. PhD thesis. All-Union Institute for the Study of the Causes and Development of Crime Prevention Measures, 1970. (In Russian)
Kufaev, V.I. Yunye pravonarushiteli [Young delinquents]. Moscow: Novaya Moskva, 1924. (In Russian)
Kuskova, E.D. “Besprizornaya Rus'” [Homeless Russia]. Sovremennye zapiski, no. 38 (1929): 527–38. (In Russian)
Maslova, O.B. Likvidatsiya massovoi detskoi besprizornosti v Sovetskoi Rossii v 1920-e gody (na materialakh Stavropol'ya i Tereka) [Elimination of mass juvenile homelessness in Soviet Russia in the 1920s (based on the materials from Stavropol and Terek)]. PhD thesis. Pyatigorsk State Technological University, 2010. (In Russian)
Materialy ko vtoromu Vserossiiskomu s"ezdu sotsial'no-pravovoi okhrany detei i podrostkov i detskikh domov 26 noyabrya 1924 g. [Materials for the Second All-Russian Congress for Social and Legal Protection of Children and Adolescents and Children’s Homes on November 26, 1924]. Moscow: [n.p.], 1924. (In Russian)
Pervyi Vserossiiskii s"ezd po okhrane detstva 2–8 fevralya 1919 g. [First All-Russian Congress for Child Welfare on February 2–8, 1919]. Moscow: NKSO, 1920. (In Russian)
Poznyshev, S.V. Detskaya besprizornost' i mery bor'by s nei [Juvenile homelessness and measures to combat it]. Moscow: Novaya Moskva, 1926. (In Russian)
Pundyakov, A.S. “Sotsial'no-pedagogicheskaya zashchita detei-sirot i besprizornikov na Vologodchine v 1920–1930-e gg.” [Social and pedagogical protection of orphans and homeless children in Vologda oblast in the 1920s – 1930s]. Vestnik Cherepovetskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Istoriya i arkheologiya, vol. 1, no. 2 (2011): 128–31. (In Russian)
Rozhkov, A.Yu. “Bor'ba s besprizornost'yu v pervoe sovetskoe desyatiletie” [Fighting homelessness in the first Soviet decade]. Voprosy istorii, no. 11. (2000): 134–39. (In Russian)
Ryabinina, N.V. “Moral'no defektivnye – kto oni? K istorii detskoi besprizornosti i prestupnosti v 1920-e gody” [The morally defective – who are they? On the history of juvenile homelessness and delinquency in the 1920s]. In Vek nyneshnii, vek minuvshii: sbornik [The present century, the past century: a collection], 56–65. Yaroslavl: YarGU, 1999. (In Russian)
Sazhina, I.S. Deyatel'nost' gosudarstva i obshchestvennykh organizatsii po likvidatsii detskoi besprizornosti v 1921–1928 gg.: Na materialakh Urala [The activities of the state and public organizations to eliminate juvenile homelessness in 1921–1928: Based on the materials from the Urals]. PhD thesis. Gorky Ural State University, 2003. (In Russian)
Shcherbinin, P.P., and I.A. Shikunova. “‘Ty defektivnyi ili amoral'nyi?’. Problemy selektsii i sotsializatsii ‘moral'no-defektivnykh’ detei v 20-e gg. XX veka v sovetskoi Rossii: regional'nye aspekty [‘Are you mentally defective or immoral?’ Problems of selection and socialization of ‘morally handicapped’ children in the 1920s in Soviet Russia: regional aspects]. Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye nauki, vol. 24, no. 181 (2019): 173–84. (In Russian)
Shilova, O.M., and A.S. Pundyakov. “Regional'nye usloviya razvitiya praktiki sotsial'no-pedagogicheskogo obespecheniya detei v 20-e gody XX veka v Vologodskoi gubernii” [Regional conditions of the development of practices in social and pedagogical child support in Vologda Governorate in the 1920s]. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. N.A. Nekrasova. Seriya: Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsial'naya rabota. Yuvenologiya. Sotsiokinetika, vol. 15, no. 1 (2013): 259–62. (In Russian)
Shveitser, V.L., and S.M. Shabalov, eds. Besprizornye v trudovykh kommunakh. Praktika raboty s trudnymi det'mi: sbornik statei i materialov [The homeless in labor communes. Practice of working with difficult children: a collection of articles and materials]. Moscow: Glavsotsvos; Narkompros, 1925. (In Russian)
Slavko, A.A. Detskaya besprizornost' i beznadzornost' v Rossii kontsa 1920-kh – nachala 1950-kh godov: sotsial'nyi portret, prichiny, formy bor'by [Juvenile homelessness and neglect in Russia in the late 1920s – early 1950s: a social portrait, causes, forms of combat]. Doctoral thesis. Samara State University, 2011. (In Russian)
Smirnova, T.M. “Detskie doma i trudkolonii: zhizn' ‘gosudarstvennykh detei’ v Sovetskoi Rossii v 1920−1930-e gg.” [Children’s homes and labor colonies: the life of “state children” in Soviet Russia in the 1920s−1930s]. Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Istoriya Rossii, no. 3 (2012): 16–38. (In Russian)
Smirnova, T.M. Deti strany Sovetov: ot gosudarstvennoi politiki k realiyam povsednevnoi zhizni. 1917–1940 gg. [Children of the Soviet country: from the state policy to the realities of everyday life. 1917–1940]. Moscow; St Petersburg: IRI RAN: Tsentr gumanitarnykh initsiativ, 2015. (In Russian)
Sycheva, N.S. “Stanovlenie i funktsionirovanie osnovnykh tipov uchebno-vospitatel'nykh uchrezhdenii dlya besprizornykh detei i podrostkov v 1920-e gody (arkhivnye materialy Dona)” [Formation and functioning of the main types of educational institutions for homeless children and adolescents in the 1920s (archival materials of the Don)]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Severo-Kavkazskii region. Obshchestvennye nauki, no. 2 (2013): 59–66. (In Russian)
Vilenskii, S.S., et al., comps. Deti GULAGa, 1918–1956 [Children of the GULAG, 1918–1956]. Moscow: MFD, 2002. (In Russian)
Weitz, S. Verwahrlosung, Delinquenz und Resozialisierung minderjähriger in der Sowjetunion: Zur Geschichte eines sozialpädagogischen Problems, dargestellt am Beispiel der Russischen Sowjetrepublik, 1917–1935. Marburg a. d. Lahn: Verlags- und Vertriebsgemeinschaft, 1978.
Zenzinov, V.M. Besprizornye [The Homeless]. Paris: Sovremennye zapiski, 1929. (In Russian)
Zharkova, A.A. Istoricheskii opyt bor'by s besprizornost'yu i pravonarusheniyami nesovershennoletnikh na Dal'nem Vostoke Rossii: 20-e–30-e gg. XX veka [Historical experience of combating homelessness and juvenile delinquency in the Russian Far East: the 1920s – 1930s]. PhD thesis. Far Eastern State University of Humanities, 2006. (In Russian)
history of Russian penitentiary system, Vologda Governorate, homelessness, neglect, juvenile delinquents, juvenile delinquency, juvenile reformatories
For citation:
Belova, N. “Vologda reformatories for juvenile delinquents (1918 – the 1920s),” Historia Provinciae – the Journal of Regional History, vol. 5, no. 4 (2021): 1143–97,

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2587-8344 (Online)