The University of Warsaw in the system of higher (university) education of the R...

The University of Warsaw in the system of higher (university) education of the Russian Empire in the first third of the 19th century

Olga S. Kashtanova
Full text:
The article is devoted to the history of the establishment of the University of Warsaw in 1816 and its development until 1831 when the university was closed after the suppression of the November Uprising of 1830–31. The specificity of the University of Warsaw was determined by the fact that during that time the Congress Kingdom of Poland that had been annexed to Russia in 1815 was an autonomous territorial entity and had a separate educational system that was not subordinate to the Ministry of National Education in St Petersburg. Neither Russian nor Polish historiography has made a comprehensive comparison of the University of Warsaw with Russian higher educational institutions due to the isolated status of the former in 1816–31. The article makes an attempt to identify similarities and differences in the functioning of these higher educational institutions on the basis of the documents that regulated the activities of Warsaw and Russian universities. A comparison is made between the structure and organization of the University of Warsaw and other universities of the empire, their collegiate governing bodies, budgets, salaries of professors, admission and terms of study of students, their number, the procedure for awarding academic degrees, etc. The unpopular measures taken by the authorities of the Congress Kingdom of Poland in the field of education in the 1820s, which were accompanied by the increased control over the students and the professors of the university and the attempts to limit its autonomy and divide it into separate higher schools, are shown against the background of the general reactionary policy towards universities. A comparative analysis allows us to draw the following conclusions: the principles of organization of the University of Warsaw and Russian universities that were founded at the beginning of the 19th century had a number of common features, which was associated with borrowing the models of higher educational institutions from Germany and partly from France. Structure, staff and other differences between the educational institutions under consideration were determined by the national features and traditions of Polish education and by greater similarity between the University of Warsaw and the universities of Western Europe. The results obtained contribute to presenting the development of the University of Warsaw in 1816–31 against a broader background and also provide new illustrative material for comparing Russian universities with the “national” universities that existed within the empire.
Olga S. Kashtanova
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher
Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
veka [Moscow University in the social and cultural life of Russia in the early 19th century]. Moscow: Yazyki russkoi kul'tury, 2000. (In Russian)
Andreev, A.Yu. Rossiiskie universitety XVIII – pervoi poloviny XIX veka v kontekste universitetskoi istorii Evropy [Russian universities of the 18th – first half of the 19th centuries in the context of European university history]. Moscow: Znak, 2009. (In Russian)
Bagalei, D.I. Opyt istorii Khar'kovskogo universiteta (po neizdannym materialam) [Experience in the history of Kharkov University (based on unpublished materials)]. 2 vols. Vol. 2, (s 1815 po 1835 god) [(from 1815 to 1835)]. Khar'kov: Parovaya tipografiya i litografiya M. Zil'berberg i synov'ya, 1904. (In Russian)
Bartnicka, K. “Szkolnictwo wyższe w koncepcjach edukacyjnych Stanisława Staszica.” Rozprawy z Dziejów Oświaty, vol. 45 (2006): 35–61.
Bartnicka, K. Polskie szkolnictwo artystyczne na przełomie XVIII i XIX wieku (1764–1831). Wrocław; Warsaw; Kraków: Zakład narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, 1971.
Barycz, H. “Zagadnienie uniwersyteckie w epoce Oświecenia.” In Pamiętnik VII Powszechnego Zjazdu Historyków Polskich we Wrocławiu 19–22 września 1948. 2 vols. Vol. 2, pt. 1, 83–91. Warsaw: Nakładem Polskiego Towarzystwa Historycznego, 1948. (In Polish)
Bieliński, J. Królewski Uniwersytet Warszawski (1816–1831). 3 t. Warszaw: [n. p.]; Kraków: W.L. Anczyc i spółka, 1907–1912. Vol. 1, 1907; Vol. 2, 1911; Vol. 3, 1912.
Bieliński, J. Uniwersytet Wileński (1579–1831). 3 vols. Kraków: W.L. Anczyc i spółka, 1899–1900.
Chamcówna, M., and K. Mrozowska. Dzieje Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego w latach 1765–1850. Dzieje Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, vol. 2, pt. 1, edited by K. Opałek. Kraków: Państwowe wydawnictwo naukowe, 1965.
Esipov, V.V. Materialy k istorii imperatorskogo Varshavskogo universiteta. Biograficheskie ocherki: 2 vyp. [Materials on the history of the Imperial University of Warsaw. Biographical sketches: 2 issues]. Issue 2. Warsaw: Tipografiya Varshavskogo uchebnogo okruga, 1915. (In Russian)
Grigor'ev, V.V. Imperatorskii S.-Peterburgskii universitet v techenie pervykh pyatidesyati let ego sushchestvovaniya. Istoricheskaya zapiska [Imperial St Petersburg University during the first fifty years of its existence. A historical note]. St Petersburg: Tipografiya V. Bezobrazova i komp., 1870. (In Russian)
Ivanov, A.E. “Vilenskii universitet Rossiisko-imperskogo perioda (1803–1831): vzglyad s Vostoka” [Vilna University of the Russian Imperial period (1803–1831): a view from the East]. In Vysshaya shkola Rossiiskoi imperii XVIII – nachala XX veka: izbrannye stat'i [Higher school of the Russian Empire, 18th – early 20th century: selected articles], 559–573. Moscow: Printsipium, 2019. (In Russian)
Kashtanova, O.S. “Razvitie prosveshcheniya i kul'tury v Korolevstve Pol'skom (1815–1830)” [Development of education and culture in the Congress Kingdom of Poland (1815–1830)]. In Pol'sha i Rossiya v pervoi treti XIX veka. Iz istorii avtonomnogo Korolevstva Pol'skogo. 1815–1830 [Poland and Russia in the first third of the 19th century. From the history of the Congress Kingdom of Poland. 1815–1830], edited by S.M. Fal'kovich, 429–68. Moscow: Indrik, 2010. (In Russian)
Krakovskii, K.P. Nit' vremeni: v 2 ch. Chast' 2. Istoriya yuridicheskogo fakul'teta Varshavskogo – Donskogo – Rostovskogo universiteta [The thread of time: in 2 parts. Part 2. History of the Faculty of Law of the Warsaw – Don – Rostov University]. 2 vols. Vol. 1, 1808–1924 gg. [1808–1924]. Rostov-on-Don: Yug, 2005. (In Russian)
Kramskaya, S.V., and S.V. Shlyk. “Istoricheskii put': ot Varshavskogo universiteta do Rostovskogo gosudarstvennogo meditsinskogo universiteta” [Historical path: from Warsaw University to Rostov State Medical University]. Yuzhno-Rossiiskii zhurnal terapevticheskoi praktiki, no. 1 (2) (2020): 10–21. (In Russian)
Lazutka, S., ed. Istoriya Vil'nyusskogo universiteta (1579–1979) [History of Vilnius University (1579–1979)]. Vilnius: Mokslas, 1979. (In Russian)
Leśnodorski, B. “Uniwersytety w epoce Oświecenia.” Kwartalnik Historyczny, vol. 71, no. 4. (1964): 893–911.
Margolis, Yu.D., and G.A. Tishkin. “Edinym vdokhnoveniem”: ocherki istorii universitetskogo obrazovaniya v Peterburge v kontse XVIII – pervoi polovine XIX vv. [‘By inspiration alone’: essays on the history of university education in St Petersburg in the late 18th – first half of the 19th centuries]. St Petersburg: Izdatel'stvo S.-Peterburgskogo universiteta, 2000. (In Russian)
Mavrodin, V.V., ed. Istoriya Leningradskogo universiteta. 1819–1969: ocherki [History of Leningrad University. 1819–1969: essays]. Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo universiteta, 1969. (In Russian)
Michalski, J. “Warunki rozwoju nauki polskiej w latach 1795–1862.” In Historia nauki polskiej. 10 vols., vol. 3, 1795–1862, edited by J. Michalski, 3–353. Wrocław; Warzaw; Kraków: Zakład narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, 1977.
Miziołek, J. “Zarys dziejów Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.” In Kultura artystyczna Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. Ars et educatio, edited by J. Miziołek, 15–80. Warsaw: Uniwersytet Warszawski, 2003.
Miziołek, J. The University of Warsaw: history and traditions, translated by K. Michałowicz and J. Miziołek. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2017.
Miziołek, J. Uniwersytet Warszawski: dzieje i tradycja. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2005.
Mycielski, M. “Uniwersytet Królewski, 1816–1831.” In Dzieje Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego 1816–1915, edited by T. Kizwalter, 53–361. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2016.
Petrov, F.A. Formirovanie sistemy universitetskogo obrazovaniya v Rossii [Formation of the system of university education in Russia]. 4 vols. Vol.1, Rossiiskie universitety i Ustav 1804 goda [Russian universities and the Charter of 1804]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo universiteta, 2002. Vol. 2, Stanovlenie sistemy universitetskogo obrazovaniya v pervye desyatiletiya XIX v. [Formation of university education system in the first decades of the 19th century]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo universiteta, 2002. Vol. 4, pt. 2, Rossiiskie universitety i lyudi 1840-kh godov [Russian universities and people in the 1840s]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo universiteta, 2003. (In Russian)
Petukhov, E.V. Imperatorskii Yur'evskii, byvshii Derptskii, universitet za sto let ego sushchestvovaniya (1802–1902): istoricheskii ocherk [Imperial Yuryevsky University, formerly Dorpat University in a hundred years of its existence (1802–1902): a historical essay]. 2 vols. Vol. 1, Pervyi i vtoroi periody (1802–1865) [First and second periods (1802–1865)]. Yur'ev: Tipografiya K. Mattisena, 1902. (In Russian)
Shchelkov, I.P. “Ocherk istorii vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii v Varshave do otkrytiya imperatorskogo Varshavskogo universiteta” [An essay on the history of higher educational institutions in Warsaw before the opening of the Imperial University of Warsaw]. Varshavskie universitetskie izvestiya, vol. 8 (1893): 1–32. (In Russian)
Siilivask, K., ed. Istoriya Tartuskogo universiteta, 1632–1982 [History of the University of Tartu]. Tallinn: Periodika, 1982. (In Russian)
Tikhomirov, M.N., ed. Istoriya Moskovskogo universiteta [History of Moscow University]. 2 vols. Vol. 1. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo universiteta, 1955. (In Russian)
Vishlenkova, E.A., S.Yu. Malysheva, and A.A. Sal'nikova. Terra Universitatis: Dva veka universitetskoi kul'tury v Kazani [Terra Universitatis: Two centuries of university culture in Kazan]. Kazan: Izdatel'stvo Kazanskogo universiteta, 2005. (In Russian)
Wawrykowa, M. “Uniwersytet Warszawski w latach 1816–1831.” In Dzieje Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1807–1915, edited by S. Kieniewicz, 60–200. Warsaw: Państwowe wydawnictwo naukowe, 1981.
Winiarz, A. “Organizacja i działalność komisji egzaminacyjnych w Księstwie Warszawskim i Królestwie Polskim (1807–1831).” Przegląd Historyczno-Oświatowy, vol. 29, no. 4 (1986): 445–59.
Winiarz, A. “Z badań nad Kuratorią Generalną Królestwa Polskiego (1823–1830).” In Stan i potrzeby badań nad oświatą i wychowaniem w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1815–1915, edited by R. Kucha and K. Poznański, 33–50. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, 1989.
Winiarz, A. Szkolnictwo Księstwa Warszawskiego i Królestwa Polskiego (1807–1831). Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, 2002.
Zagoskin, N.P. Istoriya imperatorskogo Kazanskogo universiteta za pervye sto let ego sushchestvovaniya, 1804–1904 [History of the Imperial Kazan University for the first hundred years of its existence, 1804–1904]. 4 vols. Vol. 3. Kazan: Tipolitografiya imperatorskogo Kazanskogo universiteta, 1903. (In Russian)
Zharova, E.Yu. “Universitetskie ustavy 1803–1804 gg.” [University statutes, 1803–1804]. Voprosy obrazovaniya, no. 4 (2011): 268–90. (In Russian)
Congress Poland, Russian Empire, University of Warsaw, higher education, educational institutions
For citation:
Kashtanova, O.S. “The University of Warsaw in the system of higher (university) education of the Russian Empire in the first third of the 19th century.” Historia provinciae – The Journal of Local History, vol. 6, no. 2 (2022): 582–628.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2587-8344 (Online)