THE JOURNAL OF REGIONAL HISTORY V.3 No.1
The Relationship of the Police and Society: A Historical Excursion into the Beg...
THE JOURNAL OF REGIONAL HISTORY V.3 No.1

The Relationship of the Police and Society: A Historical Excursion into the Beginning of the 20th Century

Authors:
Reent Yuri
DOI:
10.23859/2587-8344-2019-3-1-9
Full text:
The article traces the main regularities of relations between representatives of the Russian society and the police overall, as well as the forms of professional influence of police officers, gendarmes and security departments on the different segments of population. The increase of society commitment under the conditions of the revolution of 1905–07 and World War I largely changed the focus of attention on part of the police. However, this did not always help its representatives to realize the causes for changes in the nature of crimes and to find effective measures to curb the criminality. The police could not and should not have brought to bear the active influence on the improvement of the socio-political situation in the country. It was the prerogative of the emperor and his government, where the nascent civil society had not gained effective leverage yet.
Reent Yuri
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
  Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia
(Ryazan, Russia)
reent2@yandex.ru
Anisimov, P.V., and V.A. Rudkovskii (eds.) Pravo kak tsennost' i sredstvo gosudarstvennogo upravleniya obshchestvom: sbornik nauchnykh trudov. Vyp. 8  [Law as a value and means of state management of the society: A collection of scientific papers], issue 8, 344. Volgograd: Volgograds-kaya akademiya MVD Rossii, 2011. (In Russian).
Belyavsky, N.N. Politseiskoe pravo. Konspekt lektsii  N.N. Belyavskogo, professora Ur'evskogo universiteta [Police Law. Lecture notes by N.N. Belyavsky, Professor at the University of Yuryev]. Yur’ev: Tipografiya K. Mattisena, 1904. 334 p. (In Russian).
Daly Jonathan W. Autocracy under siege: Security police and opposition in Russia, 1866–1905. Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1998. 260 p.
Daly Jonathan W. The Watchful State: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1906–1917. Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2004. 334 р.
Eihelman, O.O. Russkoe policeiskoe pravo. Konspekt lektsii, chitannykh studentam yuridi-cheskogo fakul'teta Universiteta Sv. Vladimira v 1898–99 akademicheskom godu professorom O.O. Eihel'manom [Russian police law. A summary of the lectures delivered to students of the law facul-ty of Imperial University of Saint Vladimir in the 1898–99 academic year by Professor O.O. Eihelman.] Kiev: Tipografiya gazety “Kievskoe slovo”, 1898. 32 p. (In Russian).
Engels, F. “Proiskhozhdenie sem'i, chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosudarstva” [The origin of the family, private property and the state]. In  Marks K., Engel's F. Sobr. soch. [Marx K., Engels F. Coll.  Works], vol. 21, 23–178. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1961.   (In Russian).
Gernet, M.N. (ed.) Prestupnyi mir Moskvy. Sbornik statei  [Gernet, M.N., ed.  The criminal world of Moscow. Collection of articles]. Moscow: Pravo i Zhizn’, 1924. 246 p.  (In Russian).
Gorelov, I.P. “Politsiya i obshchestvo: vzaimodeistvie v sfere realizatsii pravookhranitel'noi funktsii gosudarstva” [Police and society: Interaction in the implementation of the law enforcement function of the state in Russian police]. In Rossiiskaya politsiya: tri veka sluzheniya Otechestvu [Elektronnyi resurs]: Materialy yubileinoi mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 300-letiyu rossiiskoi politsii. Sankt-Peterburg, 23–25 aprelya 2018 g., pod red. N.S. Nizhnik. Elektronnye dan. (19,6 MB) [The Russian Police: Three Centuries of Serving the Native Land [Electronic resource]: Materials of the jubilee international scientific conference dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the Russian police. St Petersburg, 23–25th April 2018], ed. by N.S. Nizhnik. Electronic data (19,6 MB), 1330–34. St Petersburg: Sankt-Peterburgskii universitet MVD Rossii, 2018. (In Russian).
Gurko V.I. Features and Figures of the Past: Government and Opinion in the Reign of Nicholas II. Stanford; London: Stanford University Press; Oxford University Press, 1939. 760 p.
Iretsky, V.Ya.  Okhranka. Stranitsa russkoi istorii [Security guard. A Page of Russian History]. Petrograd: Novaya Rossiya, 1917. 28 p. (In Russian).
Istoriya organov vnutrennikh del dorevolyutsionnoi Rossii  [The history of the internal affairs bodies in pre-revolutionary Russia]. Moscow: Politizdat, 1984. 158 p. (In Russian).
Iturralde Blanco I. Policías comunitarias del distrito Mixe: entre la resistencia y la oficialidad // I Congreso Internacional “Pueblos indígenas de América Latina, siglos XIX–XXI”. Oaxaca, 2013. Р. 122–134.
Kukushkin, V.M. Tvoya professional'naya etika  [Your Professional Ethics]. Moscow:  Kodeks: Ob”edinennaia redaktsiya MVD RF, 1994. 63 p. (In Russian).
Kuz’min, A.A. “Trudovaya povsednevnost' nizhnikh chinov politsii Sankt-Peterburga v kontse XIX – nachale XX veka” [Labor routine of the lower ranks of the St Petersburg police in the late 19th – early 20th century], Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta  [Bulletin of Orenburg State Pedagogical University], no. 3(19) (2016): 93–102. URL: http://www.vestospu.ru (date of access: 09.15.2018). (In Russian).
La Porte M. Histoire de l’Okhrana: La police secrete des tsars. 1880–1917. Paris: Payot, 1935. 312 p.
Lenin, V.I. “Bei, no ne do smerti”  [Beat, but not to death]. In  Lenin, V.I. Polnoe sobranie so-chinenii [Complete Works], vol. 4 (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1967): 401–16. (In Russian).
Levitsky, V.F. Lektsii po politseiskomu pravu, chitannye v 1901/1902 uchebnom godu [Lectures on police law, delivered in the 1901/1902 school year.] Kharkiv: Tipo-litografiya S. Ivanchenko, 1902. 400 p. (In Russian).
Lysenko, V.V. Politsiya i nravstvennost' [Police and morality]. St Petersburg: Sankt-Peterburgskii yuridicheskii institut MVD Rossii, 1996. 126 p. (In Russian).
Nazimov, A.E. Lektsii po politseiskomu pravu, chitannye professorom A.E. Nazimovym v Novo-rossiiskom universitete, pod red. B.F. Lemesha-Lemeshinskogo [Lectures on police law, delivered by Professor A.E. Nazimov at Imperial Novorossiysk University], ed. by B.F. Lemesh-Lemeshinsky. Odessa: Tipografiya i khromo-litografiya A. F. Sokolovskogo, 1903. 211 p. (In Russian).
Nersesyants, V.S. Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstva [General Theory of Law and the State]. Moscow: Norma: INFRA-M, 2012. 560 p. (In Russian).
Nizhnik, N.S., ed., Gosudarstvo i pravo: evolyutsiya, sovremennoe sostoyanie, perspektivy raz-vitiya (navstrechu 300-letiyu rossiiskoi politsii): materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-teoreticheskoi konferentsii. Sankt-Peterburg, 28 aprelya 2016 g., T. II  [N.S. Nizhnik, ed., State and law: Evolu-tion, current state, development prospects (towards the 300th anniversary of the Russian police): Materials of the international scientific-theoretical conference. St Petersburg, 28th April 2016], vol. II. St Petersburg: Sankt-Peterburgskii universitet MVD Rossii, 2016. 390 p. (In Russian).
Nizhnik, N.S., ed., Rossiiskaya politsiya: tri veka sluzheniya Otechestvu: materialy yubileinoi mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 300-letiyu rossiiskoi policii. Sankt-Peterburg, 23–25 aprelya 2018 g.  [Nizhnik, N.S., ed., Russian police: Three centuries of service to the Fatherland: materials of the jubilee international scientific conference dedicated to the 300th an-niversary of the Russian police. St Petersburg, 23–25th April 2018]. St Petersburg: Sankt-Peterburgskii universitet MVD Rossii, 2018. 1860 p. (In Russian).
Nizhnik, N.S. “Vzaimootnosheniya vlasti, obshchestva i lichnosti kak predmet politseisko-pravovoi teorii” [The relationship of power, society and personality as a subject of police law theory]. In Rossiiskaya politsiya: tri veka sluzheniya Otechestvu [Elektronnyi resurs]: Materialy yubileinoi mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 300-letiyu rossiiskoi politsii. Sankt-Peterburg, 23–25 aprelya 2018 g., pod red. N.S. Nizhnik. Elektronnye dan. (19,6 MB) [The Russian Police: Three Centuries of Serving the Native Land [Electronic resource]: Materials of the jubilee international scientific conference dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the Russian police. St Petersburg, 23–25th April 2018], ed. by N.S. Nizhnik. Electronic data (19,6 MB), 239–50. St Pe-tersburg: Sankt-Peterburgskii universitet MVD Rossii, 2018. (In Russian).
Okol’sky, A.S. “O ponyatii politseiskogo prava” [On the concept of police law],  Varshavskie universitetskie izvestiya [Warsaw University News], vol. VI (1894): 1–22. (In Russian).
Palibin, M.N. Povtoritel'nyi kurs politseiskogo prava [A Repeated Course of the Police Law].
St Petersburg: N. K. Martynov, 1900. 252 p.
Peregudova, Z.I. Politicheskii sysk Rossii (1880–1917 gg.) [Political Investigation of Russia (1880–1917)]. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2000. 432 p. (In Russian).
Perov, I.F., and M.V. Kuznetsov. Politsiya Ryazanskoi gubernii  [Police of the Ryazan Prov-ince]. Ryazan: Uzoroch'e, 2002. 259 p. (In Russian).
Petrov, A.V.,  and V.Yu. Devyatov. “Politsiya i obshchestvo v Rossiiskoi imperii nachala XX veka” [Police and society in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century],  Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pravo  [Bulletin of South Ural State University. Series: Law], no. 40 (2011): 21–24. (In Russian).
“Politsiya i khuliganstvo” [Police and hooliganism], Golos Severa [Voice of the North], Arhan-gel'sk, 20th September, 1906. (In Russian).
Raeff M. Russia’s Autocracy and Paradoxes of Modernization // Political Ideas and Institutions of Imperial Russia. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 1994. Р. 116–124.
Reent, Yu.A. Politseiskaya sistema Rossiiskoi imperii nachala XX veka (1900–1917 gg.) [The police system of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century (1900–1917)]. PhD diss. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2002. (In Russian).
Riha Th. A Russian European: Paul Miliukov in Russian Politics. London; Notre Dame: Univer-sity of Notre Dame Press. 1969. 373 р.
Ruud Ch., Stepanov S. Fontanka, 16. The Tsar’s secret police. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Uni-versity Press, 2002. 432 р.
Savitsky, S.V. Sistematicheskii sbornik tsirkulyarov Departamenta politsii i Shtaba Otdel'nogo korpusa zhandarmov, otnosyashchikhsya k obyazannostyam chinov Korpusa po proizvodstvu doz-nanii [A systematic collection of circulars of the Police Department and the Headquarters of the Separate gendarmes’ corps relating to the duties of the Investigation Corps’ officials]. St Petersburg: Tipografiya Shtaba Otdel'nogo korpusa zhandarmov, 1908. 308 p. (In Russian).
Semenova, O.V. “Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i gosudarstvo: spetsifika vzaimosvyazi i vzaimo-deistviya” [Civil society and the state: Specificity of interconnection and interaction]. In  Gosu-darstvo i pravo: evolyutsiya, sovremennoe sostoyanie, perspektivy razvitiya (navstrechu 300-letiyu rossiiskoi politsii): materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-teoreticheskoi konferentsii. T. I [State and law: Evolution, current state, development prospects (towards the 300th anniversary of the Russian police): materials of the international scientific-theoretical conference], vol. I,  136–38. St Peters-burg: Sankt-Peterburgskii universitet MVD Rossii, 2016. (In Russian).
Seregin, N.S., and N.N. Shul’gin. “Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo, pravovoe gosudarstvo i pravo (‘Kruglyi stol’ zhurnalov ‘Gosudarstvo i pravo’ i ‘Voprosy filosofii’)” [Civil society, the rightful state and the law (‘Round table’ of the journals ‘State and Law’ and ‘Questions of Philosophy’),  Gosudarstvo i pravo  [State and Law], no. 1 (2002): 12–50. (In Russian).
Stepanov, Y.S. Pervye dva perioda samostoyatel'nogo sushchestvovaniya nauki o politsii v Germanii: issledovanie, napisannoe dlya polucheniya stepeni doktora politseiskogo prava Y.A. Stepanovym [The first two periods of the independent existence of the police science in Ger-many: A study written to obtain the degree of the doctor of police law J. Stepanov]. Kazan: Univer-sitetskaya tipografiya, 1869. 90 p. (In Russian).
Tarasov, I.T. Ocherk nauki politseiskogo prava. Posobie dlya slushaniya lektsii i dlya prigotov-leniya k ekzamenu [An Essay on the Science of Police Law. A handbook for preparation for the lec-tures and the exam]. Moscow: ‘Pechatnya S.P. Yakovleva’, 1897. 702 p. (In Russian).
Vassilyev A.T. The Okhrana: The Russian Secret Police. London: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1930. 305 p.
Yanzhul, I.I. Politseiskoe pravo. Kurs ordinarnogo professora I.I. Yanzhula. 1885/1886  [Police law course of professor in ordinary Ivan Ivanovich Yanzhul. 1885/1886]. Moscow: Litografiya Ze-lenkova, 1886. 295 p. (In Russian).
Zhurnal soveshchaniya uezdnyh ispravnikov Nizhegorodskoi gubernii po voprosam politseiskoi sluzhby [Journal of the meeting of district guardsmen in the Nizhny Novgorod province dedicated to police service issues]. Nizhny Novgorod: Tipografiya gubernskogo pravleniya, 1916. 71 p. (In Russian).

Keywords:
The Russian Empire, power, society, person, police, gendarmes, security departments, law enforcement
For citation:
Reent, Yu. “The Relationship of the Police and Society: A Historical Excursion into the Beginning of the 20th Century”. Historia Provinciae – The Journal of Regional History, vol. 3, no.1 (2019): 397–429, http:// doi.org/10.23859/2587-8344-2019-3-1-9

Creative Commons License<
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2587-8344 (Online)